Disk Image Formats

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File systems and other file formats described on this page's parent page describe entities that exist on disks as they would normally used.   
+
[[Filesystem]]s and other file formats described on this page's parent page describe entities that exist on disks as they would normally be used.   
  
However, there are also file formats that allow a physical disk (or tape or other medium) to be "imaged" into a file, either to re-copied onto a physical disk later, or else used by an *emulator* of the computer system that would have originally.   
+
However, there are also file formats that allow a physical disk (or tape or other medium) to be "imaged" into a file, either to be re-copied onto a physical disk later, or else used by an *emulator* of the computer system that would have originally used that sort of media.   
  
These file formats represent a data image of one of the physical floppy disk formats.  In addition to the raw data from the disk, these formats may contain metadata that the corresponding emulator environment uses to correctly access the data.
+
These file formats represent a data image of one of the physical floppy disk (etc.) formats.  In addition to the raw data from the disk/tape/etc, these formats may contain metadata that the corresponding emulator environment uses to correctly access the data.
  
 
Typically, when archiving a physical disk for later use, a physical disk will be imaged into one of these file formats.  Sub-pages of this page should contain information on the format itself as well as instructions on how to extract a physical disk into that disk image format, including information about what physical drives are required, what software to use and how and what OS that is run under.
 
Typically, when archiving a physical disk for later use, a physical disk will be imaged into one of these file formats.  Sub-pages of this page should contain information on the format itself as well as instructions on how to extract a physical disk into that disk image format, including information about what physical drives are required, what software to use and how and what OS that is run under.
  
See also [[ROM and memory images]] for images of memory, and [[Floppy disk]]s for the physical floppies. See [[Archiving]] for archive and backup formats that are filesystem-based rather than raw-sector-based. See [[Filesystem]] for the filesystems.
+
See also [[ROM and memory images]] for images of memory, and [[Floppy disk]]s for the physical floppies. See [[Archiving]] for archive and backup formats that are filesystem-based rather than raw-sector-based. See [[Filesystem]] for the filesystems. [[Forensics and Law Enforcement]] has formats for preserving drive contents with metadata for investigations.
  
 
==Floppy Disk Image Formats==
 
==Floppy Disk Image Formats==
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* [[ADF (Amiga)]]
 
* [[ADF (Amiga)]]
* [[Amiga DiskMasher compressed image]] (.dms)
 
 
* [[Disk Imploder]] (Amiga) (.dmp, .dex)
 
* [[Disk Imploder]] (Amiga) (.dmp, .dex)
* [[Diskmasher]] (Amiga) (.dms)
+
* [[Disk Masher System]] (Amiga) (.dms)
  
 
====Amstrad====
 
====Amstrad====
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====Apple II series====
 
====Apple II series====
  
 +
* [[A2R disk image]]
 
* [[Apple Disk Image]] (Apple II disk image with header) (.2mg)
 
* [[Apple Disk Image]] (Apple II disk image with header) (.2mg)
* [[DART]] (Apple)
 
 
* [[Disk Copy 4.2]] (Apple)
 
* [[Disk Copy 4.2]] (Apple)
 
* [[Disk Copy 6]] (Apple)
 
* [[Disk Copy 6]] (Apple)
 
* [[DSK (Apple II)]], used for Apple II disks (typically 5.25" disks)
 
* [[DSK (Apple II)]], used for Apple II disks (typically 5.25" disks)
 +
* [[EDD disk image]]
 
* [[Nibblized disk image]] (.nib), an Apple II disk image format that works for copy-protected disks
 
* [[Nibblized disk image]] (.nib), an Apple II disk image format that works for copy-protected disks
 +
* [[WOZ disk image]]
 +
 +
====Atari====
 +
===== Atari 8-bit =====
 +
* [[ATR]] (SIO2PC)
 +
* [[DCM]] (Disk Communicator)
 +
* [[DI]] (800XL DJ emulator)
 +
* [[PRO]] (APE ProSystem)
 +
* [[SCP]] (Spartados)
 +
* [[XFD]] (Xformer)
 +
===== Atari ST =====
 +
* [[DIM]] (F-Copy)
 +
* [[MSA (Magic Shadow Archiver)]]
 +
* [[ST disk image]]
 +
* [[STT]] (STEEM)
 +
* [[STX]] (Pasti)
  
====Commodore 64/128====
+
====Commodore 64/128/PET/CBM====
  
 
* [[C64 Nibbler Format]] (.nib) (created by mnib)
 
* [[C64 Nibbler Format]] (.nib) (created by mnib)
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* [[G64]] C64 raw (GCR coded) disk image
 
* [[G64]] C64 raw (GCR coded) disk image
  
====Misc.====
+
====Macintosh====
  
* [[DiscFerret floppy image]] (.dfi)
+
* [[Apple Disk Image]] (MacOS or OS X disk image with header) (.dmg, .smi, .img)
* [[Famicom Disk System]] (.fds)
+
* [[DART]] (Apple)
 +
 
 +
====MSX====
 +
* [[PDI]] (Protected Disk Image)
 +
 
 +
====PC (DOS/Windows)====
 +
 
 +
* [[86F]] (86Box)
 +
* [[CopyQM]]
 +
* [[DDI]] (DiskDupe image file)
 +
* [[FDF Image]] (EZ-DisKlone)
 
* [[FDI]] (Formatted Disk Image)
 
* [[FDI]] (Formatted Disk Image)
 
* [[IMA]]
 
* [[IMA]]
 
* [[IMD]] (ImageDisk)
 
* [[IMD]] (ImageDisk)
 +
* [[IMG (DOSIMG)|IMG]] (HD-Copy disk image)
 +
* [[Quick Release Sector Transfer]] (Compaq)
 +
* [[RIM]] (EZ-DiskCopy PRO)
 +
* [[TD0]] (TeleDisk)
 +
* [[XPACK]] (.xdi)
 +
 +
====Tandy====
 +
 +
* [[DMK]]
 +
* [[JV1/JV3]]
 +
 +
====ZX Spectrum====
 +
* [[Mirage Microdrive Snapshot]]
 +
* [[TRD]] (see [[TR-DOS filesystem]])
 +
 +
====Misc.====
 +
* [[Anex86 PC98 floppy image]] (.fdi)
 +
* [[DiscFerret floppy image]] (.dfi)
 +
* [[Famicom Disk System]] (.fds)
 +
* [[LDBS disk image]] (.ldbs)
 
* [[MESS floppy image]] (.mfi)
 
* [[MESS floppy image]] (.mfi)
 
* [[Pasopia disk image]] (.d88)
 
* [[Pasopia disk image]] (.d88)
 
* [[Raw disk image]] (.img) (ie, created with dd)
 
* [[Raw disk image]] (.img) (ie, created with dd)
* [[TD0]] (TeleDisk)
 
  
 
===Physical (Hardware) Images===
 
===Physical (Hardware) Images===
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* [[DRAFT]] (Software Preservation Society intermediate format)
 
* [[DRAFT]] (Software Preservation Society intermediate format)
 
* [[IPF]] (Software Preservation Society image format)
 
* [[IPF]] (Software Preservation Society image format)
 +
* [[KryoFlux]]
  
 
==Optical Disc Image Formats==
 
==Optical Disc Image Formats==
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* [[CDI]] (Disc Juggler)
 
* [[CDI]] (Disc Juggler)
 
* [[CloneCD Control File]] (.ccd, .img, .sub)
 
* [[CloneCD Control File]] (.ccd, .img, .sub)
 +
* [[C2D]] Roxio
 +
* [[CIF Image]] Roxio
 
* [[CUE and BIN]]
 
* [[CUE and BIN]]
 
* [[DDP]] (Disc Description Protocol)
 
* [[DDP]] (Disc Description Protocol)
 
* [[DMG]] (Apple)
 
* [[DMG]] (Apple)
 +
* [[GI]] (Sonic Global Image File)
 +
* [[ISOBuster Managed Image]] (IBP/IBQ)
 
* [[ISO image]] (.iso)
 
* [[ISO image]] (.iso)
 
* [[ISZ]]
 
* [[ISZ]]
 
* [[MDF and MDS]]
 
* [[MDF and MDS]]
 
* [[NRG]] (Nero Burning ROM)
 
* [[NRG]] (Nero Burning ROM)
 +
* [[TOAST]] (Roxio Toast)
 +
 +
===Optical Disc Project Formats===
 +
Disc Burning Software Project files
 +
 +
* [[NRI]] (Nero Burning ROM)
 +
* [[CDL]] (Corel CD Creator)
 +
* [[Easy CD Creator]] (CL2, CL3, CL4)
 +
* [[CL5]] (Roxio EasyCD Creator 5)
 +
* [[RCL]] (Roxio Creator Classic)
 +
* [[ROXIO]] (Roxio Creator Classic/Easy Media Creator)
 +
* [[ROX]] (Roxio Creator NXT)
 +
* [[DMSD]] (Roxio MyDVD)
 +
* [[DISC]] (Roxio TOAST)
 +
* [[DVD Sonic]] (Sonic myDVD .dvd)
  
 
==Hard Disk Image Formats==
 
==Hard Disk Image Formats==
  
* [[VHD (Virtual Hard Disk)]] (Microsoft)
+
* [[HDV (disk image)|HDV]]
==Virtualization Image Formats==
+
* [[Raw disk image]] (.img)
 +
 
 +
==Virtual Machine Disks and Virtualization Image Formats==
 
* [[OVF (Open Virtualization Format)]]
 
* [[OVF (Open Virtualization Format)]]
 +
* [[qcow]] (QEMU)
 +
* [[VDI]] (Virtual Disk Image) (VirtualBox) (.vdi)
 +
* [[VHD (Virtual Hard Disk)]] (Microsoft) (.vhd)
 +
* [[VMDK]] (Virtual Machine Disk) (VMWare) (.vmdk)
  
 
==Tape Image Formats==
 
==Tape Image Formats==
  
* [[APT]] (APF Imagination Machine emulated tape, logical bits) (.apt)
+
* [[APT (APF Imagination Machine)|APT]] (APF Imagination Machine emulated tape, logical bits) (.apt)
 
* [[APW]] (APF Imagination Machine emulated tape, raw audio) (.apw)
 
* [[APW]] (APF Imagination Machine emulated tape, raw audio) (.apw)
 +
* [[CAS (Atari)|CAS]] (Atari; Digital Cassette Image system)
 +
* [[PZX]] (ZX Spectrum)
 +
* [[SIMH TAP]] (SIMH emulator's tape file format)
 +
* [[T64]]
 +
* [[TAP (ZX Spectrum)]]
 
* [[Tap file]] (contains data from Commodore data cassette)
 
* [[Tap file]] (contains data from Commodore data cassette)
 +
* [[TZX]] (ZX Spectrum)
 
* [[Unified Emulator Format]] (UEF; also does Acorn disks and ROMs)
 
* [[Unified Emulator Format]] (UEF; also does Acorn disks and ROMs)
 
==Forensics formats==
 
* [[AFF]] Advanced Forensics Format
 
* Expert Witness (i.e. EnCase)
 
  
 
==Unknown==
 
==Unknown==
* [[lbl]] See here for details: [http://classiccmp.org/pipermail/cctalk/2012-December/326747.html http://classiccmp.org/pipermail/cctalk/2012-December/326747.html]
+
* [[lbl]] See here for details: [https://web.archive.org/web/20130103032119/http://classiccmp.org/pipermail/cctalk/2012-December/326747.html]
  
 
==Tools==
 
==Tools==
 
* [[The Sleuth Kit and Autopsy]] can read raw, Expert Witness, and AFF formats
 
* [[The Sleuth Kit and Autopsy]] can read raw, Expert Witness, and AFF formats
 
* [http://www.winimage.com/ WinImage] to read, write and create images, also lots of info
 
* [http://www.winimage.com/ WinImage] to read, write and create images, also lots of info
 +
* [http://foremost.sourceforge.net/ Foremost: console tool to recover files from disk images]
 +
* [http://disktype.sourceforge.net/ disktype: detect format of disk or disk image]
 +
* [[TrID|TrID File Identifier]]: recognize many disk image formats
 +
* [https://github.com/bitcurator/bca-webtools bca-webtools]
 +
* [https://github.com/eaas-framework/xmount xmount: emulates various disk image formats for use in emulators requiring them]
 +
 +
See also [[Disk Imaging Software & Systems]], and [[Forensics and Law Enforcement]].
 +
 +
== Links ==
 +
* [http://qanda.digipres.org/20/what-are-the-reasons-for-saving-disk-images?show=183 What are the reasons for saving disk images?]
 +
* [http://ils.unc.edu/digccurr/curategear2016-talks/woods-curategear2016.pdf BCA-Webtools: Accessing and Visualizing Disk Images in a Web Browser]

Latest revision as of 15:57, 1 May 2020

File Format
Name Disk Image Formats
Ontology

{{{caption}}}

Filesystems and other file formats described on this page's parent page describe entities that exist on disks as they would normally be used.

However, there are also file formats that allow a physical disk (or tape or other medium) to be "imaged" into a file, either to be re-copied onto a physical disk later, or else used by an *emulator* of the computer system that would have originally used that sort of media.

These file formats represent a data image of one of the physical floppy disk (etc.) formats. In addition to the raw data from the disk/tape/etc, these formats may contain metadata that the corresponding emulator environment uses to correctly access the data.

Typically, when archiving a physical disk for later use, a physical disk will be imaged into one of these file formats. Sub-pages of this page should contain information on the format itself as well as instructions on how to extract a physical disk into that disk image format, including information about what physical drives are required, what software to use and how and what OS that is run under.

See also ROM and memory images for images of memory, and Floppy disks for the physical floppies. See Archiving for archive and backup formats that are filesystem-based rather than raw-sector-based. See Filesystem for the filesystems. Forensics and Law Enforcement has formats for preserving drive contents with metadata for investigations.

Contents

[edit] Floppy Disk Image Formats

Images created directly from floppy disks.

[edit] Generic Sector Images

[edit] Acorn

[edit] Amiga

[edit] Amstrad

  • DSK (CPCEMU), used for Amstrad and related disks (typically 3" disks)

[edit] APF Imagination Machine

  • APD (APF Imagination Machine emulated disk) (.apd)

[edit] Apple II series

[edit] Atari

[edit] Atari 8-bit
  • ATR (SIO2PC)
  • DCM (Disk Communicator)
  • DI (800XL DJ emulator)
  • PRO (APE ProSystem)
  • SCP (Spartados)
  • XFD (Xformer)
[edit] Atari ST

[edit] Commodore 64/128/PET/CBM

  • C64 Nibbler Format (.nib) (created by mnib)
  • D64 and its variants (D71, D81, all with optional error information) from the C64
  • G64 C64 raw (GCR coded) disk image

[edit] Macintosh

[edit] MSX

  • PDI (Protected Disk Image)

[edit] PC (DOS/Windows)

[edit] Tandy

[edit] ZX Spectrum

[edit] Misc.

[edit] Physical (Hardware) Images

  • DRAFT (Software Preservation Society intermediate format)
  • IPF (Software Preservation Society image format)
  • KryoFlux

[edit] Optical Disc Image Formats

CD-ROM, DVD-ROM, BluRay, GD-ROM etc.

[edit] Optical Disc Project Formats

Disc Burning Software Project files

  • NRI (Nero Burning ROM)
  • CDL (Corel CD Creator)
  • Easy CD Creator (CL2, CL3, CL4)
  • CL5 (Roxio EasyCD Creator 5)
  • RCL (Roxio Creator Classic)
  • ROXIO (Roxio Creator Classic/Easy Media Creator)
  • ROX (Roxio Creator NXT)
  • DMSD (Roxio MyDVD)
  • DISC (Roxio TOAST)
  • DVD Sonic (Sonic myDVD .dvd)

[edit] Hard Disk Image Formats

[edit] Virtual Machine Disks and Virtualization Image Formats

[edit] Tape Image Formats

  • APT (APF Imagination Machine emulated tape, logical bits) (.apt)
  • APW (APF Imagination Machine emulated tape, raw audio) (.apw)
  • CAS (Atari; Digital Cassette Image system)
  • PZX (ZX Spectrum)
  • SIMH TAP (SIMH emulator's tape file format)
  • T64
  • TAP (ZX Spectrum)
  • Tap file (contains data from Commodore data cassette)
  • TZX (ZX Spectrum)
  • Unified Emulator Format (UEF; also does Acorn disks and ROMs)

[edit] Unknown

  • lbl See here for details: [1]

[edit] Tools

See also Disk Imaging Software & Systems, and Forensics and Law Enforcement.

[edit] Links

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